Monday, May 25, 2020
Prior to 1914 the main Powers of Europe split into two major conglomerations, the Triple Entente, or Allied Powers, composed of Britain, France and Russia, and the Triple Alliance, or the Axis Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Although these alliances were strictly defensive in nature they meant that conflicts between countries from either alliance would inevitably come to include the countries they were allied to. Ã¢â¬ËThe alliances created an excessively rigid diplomatic framework, within which relatively small detonators could produce huge explosions.Ã¢â¬â¢ There were three opening crises between 1905 and 1911 that fortified the animosity between the Powers of Europe acting as these detonators to expose the differences between them. Two were over Morocco (1905 1911) and the other, the annexation of Bosnia (1908.) The first of the three came when Kaiser Wilhelm II attempted to denounce French influence in Morocco, aiming to test the strength of the Anglo-French Entente. His visit provoked international crisis which was reconciled by the Algeciras Conference, which was a gathering of the major Powers in 1906 which had one aim, to decide what was done regarding Morocco. This ended in favour of France culminating in the reinforced marriage of France and Britain. The second, the annexation of the two Turkish provinces Bosnia and Herzegovina. These had been administered by Austria since the Congress of Berlin, a treaty between Russia and Turkey which solvedShow MoreRelatedEconomic Interaction Between Europe And Africa962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFrom 1650-1914, economic interaction in the Atlantic Basin stayed the same in that Europe remained dominant over trade while economic interaction in the Atlantic Basin changed in that the slave trade decreased and the trade of raw materials and manufactured goods increased. Economic interaction in the Atlantic Basin stayed the same in that Europe remained dominant over trade. Europe started economic interaction in the Atlantic Basin. The beginning of European dominance over trade began in the AtlanticRead MoreThe Concert of Europe Essay1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Concert of Europe The Congress System, which took the form of a series of congresses and diplomatic meetings held between 1818 and 1822, can be regarded as a practical expression of the rather general concept of the Concert of Europe. The Concert of Europe was an attempt to regularize the conflicting ambitions of the Great Powers in the interests of Europe as a whole. As such, its effectiveness was dependant on the willingness of all five Great Powers to show moderationRead MoreCauses Of The Cold War1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCold War was a political, ideological and sometimes indirect military confrontation that took place after the Second World War between the two largest powers in the world: The United States and the Soviet Union. The conflict between these two great powers intensified without a real war on the ground. It was a silent war characterized by both powers in an arms race with the most lethal weapons without actually using these weapons. That is why that war was known as the Cold War. In this paper, I willRead MoreEssay on 1890 Europe As An Area of Growing Tension1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1890 Europe As An Area of Growing Tension Around 1890 it was apparent that conflict in Europe was almost inevitable, due to many factors to sides (armed camps) had aroused these were; The Triple Entente and The Triple Alliance, through wars and turbulence in Europe the eventual outcome was the outbreak of the first world war. The western powers expanded colonies. However, national rivalries gradually grew and alliance camps emerged. Economic competition and arms raceRead MoreThe Main Long Term Causes of World War One Essay1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe main Long term causes of World War ONE (1914-1918) There was no single cause for the outbreak of the First World War. The causes are much more complex than those of the Second World War and include short, intermediate and long term factors that all culminated to cause the July Days in 1914. These factors include militarism, nationalism, imperialism, the alliance system, and industrialization as the long term causes. The intermediate causes included the crises inRead MoreWorld War I And Great War1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbillion, and changed the map of Europe. What could possibly cause such a devastating global conflict? Since there is not simple answer as to who caused the First World War, all we do know is that at the beginning of the 20th century, some issues pushed countries to the verge of war. Industrialization caused Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, (also known as the great powers), to expand their territories. As they wanted more land, resources, and power, they also tried to protectRead MoreThe Revolution, The Second Reich, And The First War932 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof World War One. During the Bismarck era, Bismarck s main goal was to keep France isolated and stay in good relations with Austria and Russia so that it would prevent a two-front war. Although Bismarck s foreign policy was creating cooperation, it did not last very long. The spark of World War one came from the Wilhelmine era, which turned away from everything BismarckÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy represented. The expansion of the military scared Europe, the industrialization of the railroad was a suspici onRead MoreThe Rise and Fall of Feudalism770 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespolitical system, flourished in Medieval Europe. In this essay, the main political and economic characteristics of Feudalism will be mentioned, while discussing the main historical factors to the rise and fall of feudalism. The rise of Feudalism was a direct result of insecurity that caused by several significant historical factors. At first, the collapse of Roman Empire that led to prolonged unrest and power struggles was essentially a reason for why Europe was divided into many small states. TheRead MoreEurope on the Brink of Change at the Turn of the 20th Century1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEurope on the Brink of Change at the Turn of the 20th Century By the turn of the 20th century Europe had undergone massive changes which had eventually pushed it into war. The main forces behind these changes were 1. Nationalism 2. Militarism 3. Imperialism 4. Socialism 5. Alliances 6. Unification These ideas and systems threatened the balance of power which caused a major war to break out. Nationalism is the feelingRead MoreThe Popularity of Green Parties Essay1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Popularity of Green Parties Today in Europe, the abundance of environmental issues in the forefront of popular debate is at an all time high, and rightly so, more stress is being placed on resolving these issues before it is too late. Now more than ever, the people of Europe are standing up and taking responsibility for their problems and looking for ways to solve them before the damage done becomes irreversible. It would be logical therefore to presume that due
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Caliban in The Tempest Ã¢â¬ËThe TempestÃ¢â¬â¢ is the magical story of the ship-wrecked inhabitants of an island. It deals with many serious themes such as; nature/nurture, power, magic and treachery but Ã¢â¬Ëthe seriousness is never allowed to cause disquiet in the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢. Many of these themes are still relevant today. The Tempest is, in effect, Ã¢â¬Ëa fairytale complete with magical occurrences, suspension of the laws of nature and a happy endingÃ¢â¬â¢. Caliban is an interesting an important character in Ã¢â¬ËThe TempestÃ¢â¬â¢. He brings to the play issues that have a humorous side but are also serious, for example the treatment of inferiors. ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of Caliban is portrayed as being amusing, withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦. . thou didst seek to violate the honour of my child.Ã¢â¬â¢ Another example of this is, Ã¢â¬ËI must eat my dinnerÃ¢â¬â¢, which shows that the thought that he is hungry has come into his head and he cannot think of anything else. This also proves he is child-like in his thinking. From a directorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, Caliban would be bitter, loud and slow in this scene. He enters saying a curse on Prospero, so he should burst out of his cave shouting these lines at Prospero with real feeling as though he has spent time in his cave thinking about the curse. He would speak in a loud, forceful voice and get into his curse. The audience would probably be shocked, slightly frightened and mildly disgusted with CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance and demeanour. Caliban is used in this scene to raise the issue of the treatment of servants and the master/servant relationship. Although the audience know by know that Caliban tried to rape Miranda, Prospero treats him very harshly which reflects the poor treatment of servants in ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s time. For example, when Prospero tells Caliban to come and chop wood, he replies, Ã¢â¬ËThereÃ¢â¬â¢s wood enough within.Ã¢â¬â¢ This shows a sense of bitterness on CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s part, showing that he resents being ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s servant, when he was once master of his own island. In this sceneShow MoreRelated Caliban Portrayed as a Child in The Tempest1901 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCaliban Portrayed as a Child in The Tempest Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Can a grown adult develop and act like a child?Ã Shakespeaers answer would have been yes.Ã This fact is depicted through the character of Caliban.Ã Calibans speech and manners, as well as his thought, all display the very basic reactions and notions of human beings.Ã He is also controlled by a parent figure who comes in the form of Prospero.Ã An analysis of Caliban can hold him up to Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development, which focusesRead More The Character of Caliban in The Tempest Essay1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Character ofÃ Caliban in The Tempest Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Caliban is the only authentic native of what is often called Prosperos Island. However, he is not an indigenous islander, his mother Sycorax was from Argier, and his father Setebos seems to have been a Patagonian deity. Sycorax was exiled from Argier for witch-craft, much like Prospero himself, and Caliban was born on the island. Calibans own understanding of his position is made eloquently plain when we first meet him: Ã I must eatRead More The Character of Caliban in Shakespeares The Tempest Essay1786 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Character of Caliban in The Tempest Ã Ã This thing of darkness, I must acknowledge mine It is impossible to understand The Tempest without first understanding the character of Caliban. Despite numerous novels and poems praising the virtuous, the pure and the good, everyone has within them a darker side of depravity and evil thoughts. This makes us human. What distinguishes between good and bad people, though, is the way in which this alter ego manifests itself to both the rest of mankindRead More Caliban in Shakespeares The Tempest Essay1855 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Tempest, considered by many to be ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s farewell to the theatre, has of all his plays the most remarkable interpretive richness. The exceptional flexibility of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s stage is given particular prominence in The Tempest due to its originality and analytic potential, in particular in the presentation of one of his most renowned and disputed characters, Caliban. Superficially portrayed in the play as a most detestable monster, Ca liban does not evoke much sympathy. However, on furtherRead More The Purpose of Caliban in The Tempest Essay1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Purpose of Caliban in The Tempest Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the indispensable themes displayed in The Tempest is the duality of nature and society.Ã This is made apparent through the character of Caliban.Ã Caliban is a dis-figured fish-like creature that inhabits the island where the play The Tempest, takes place.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Caliban is the son a witch-hag, and the only native on the island.Ã In Calibans first speech, he suggests that Prospero stole the island from him. (Act 1, Scene 1, lineRead MoreThe Importance Of Caliban In Shakespeares The Tempest761 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬ So does Prospero, in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Tempest, have a right to enslave Caliban, the probably mentally-impaired son of the witch Sycorax, after Caliban presumably raped Miranda, ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter? Many would say yes, because Prospero ruled the land and held the only prominent voice of government and law. However, if we broaden our view and see ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s true intents and the numerous other actions he could have undertaken rather than enslaving Caliban, we discover ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s illegitimacy to yokeRead More The Oppression of Caliban in The Tempest Essay2573 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe Oppression of Caliban in The Tempest William Shakespeares, The Tempest, provides insight into the hierarchy of command and servitude by order of nature. This play uses the relationship between its characters to display the control of the conqueror over the conquered. It also shows how society usually places the undesirable members at the bottom of the chain of command, even though they may be entitled to a higher social status. For example, the beginning of the play opens with a sceneRead MoreThe Tempest - Relationship Between Prospero and Caliban1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShakespeare uses to present the relationship between Prospero and Caliban. Ã¢â¬ËThe TempestÃ¢â¬â¢ was the last play written by Shakespeare and is widely regarded to be his greatest play. Ã¢â¬ËThe TempestÃ¢â¬â¢ is thought to have been written about the year 1610. All of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s previously used genres are in the play: romance, tragedy, comedy and history. Ã¢â¬ËThe TempestÃ¢â¬â¢ adheres to the three classical unities, unity of time, action and place. Ã¢â¬ËThe TempestÃ¢â¬â¢ takes place in a twenty-four hour time period which abides byRead MoreProsperos Relationship with Caliban and Colonialism in The Tempest1483 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe relationship between Prospero and Caliban is a perfect demonstration of the dependence relationship between a coloniser and the native of whichever colony he set his eye upon. Colonialism was a subject easily related to by Shakespeares contemporary audience; with James on the throne the British Empire was beginning to thrive and would soon become the largest in not only the 17th Century world, but o ne of the largest in history. At the time The Tempest was first preformed, 1611, Britain hadRead MoreCaliban in The Tempest by William Shakespeare Essay757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCaliban in The Tempest by William Shakespeare Caliban is very important to The Tempest. He is as a prominent link between the audience and play. Elizabethan theatre was more like a football match that theatre, as we know it today. There were raucous crowds who would have particularly liked having a monster they could jeer at. Therefore Caliban would have been a central character to the lower class character, as they could feel superior to him in a very class determined
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Immortality and Myth in The Age of Innocence Edith WhartonÃ¢â¬â¢s books are considered, by some, merely popular fiction of her time. But we must be careful not to equate popularity with the value of the fiction; i.e., we must not assume that if her books are popular, they are also primitive. Compared to the works of her contemporary and friend, Henry James, whose books may seem complex and sometimes bewildering; WhartonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Age of Innocence appears to be a simplistic, gossipy commentary of New York society during the last decade of the 19th century*. Instead, it is one manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle with the questions of mortality and immortality. WhartonÃ¢â¬â¢s characters, settings and the minutiae of social rituals, manners, speech habits, dress andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Urns and wall paintings tell us about the mythical charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ predilection for a sensual life; this compares to WhartonÃ¢â¬â¢s charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ penchant for their own hedonistic life of caro using, sexual cavorting and dizzy social calendars of parties and operas. The Greeks, mythical and real, were masters of architecture and decoration, which to this day, attest to their immortality. Wharton pays great attention to the mansions and embellishments of the New York houses. Her society attempts to be immortal in its own buildings; and by amassing ornate bits and bobbles from ages past and paintings and decorations, the society feels it will live on forever: Then the house had been boldly planned with a ball-room, so that, instead of squeezing through a narrow passage to get to it (as at the ChiversesÃ¢â¬â¢) one marched solemnly down a vista of enfiladed drawing-rooms (the sea-green, the crimson and the botron dÃ¢â¬â¢or), seeing from afar the many-candled lustres reflected in the polished parquetry, and beyond that the depths of a conservatory where camellias and tree-ferns arched their costly foliage over seats of black and gold Bamboo. WhartonÃ¢â¬â¢s characters, albeit mortal beings, are made immortal and some can even be compared with mythical characters. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll begin with the lesser characters. Newland Archers sister, Janey who: Ã¢â¬Å"was subject to starts andShow MoreRelatedHeracles: The New Jesus Essay1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Most mythologies contain borrowed aspects from older accounts of the same stories. Myths serve to answer the questions mankind was and is unable to answer simply. Because of the yearning for knowledge mankind has always held, those who were looked towards for answers often had similar explanations based on what they were once told. This sharing of information has given historians an array of mythologies from across the world that can be placed on a semi-clear time line as they adapted and partsRead MoreEssay A Mortals Sense Of Immortality1802 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMortalamp;#8217;s Sense of Immortality To fear death is to fear life itself. An overbearing concern for the end of life not only leads to much apprehension of the final moment but also allows that fear to occupy oneamp;#8217;s whole life. The only answer that can possibly provide relief in the shadow of the awaited final absolution lies in another kind of absolution, one that brings a person to terms with their irrevocable mortality and squelches any futile desire for immortality. Myths are often the vehiclesRead MoreComparision of Greek Myth of Prometheus and Judaeo-Christian Adam and Eve1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhen comparing the ancient Greek creation myth of Prometheus and the Judaeo-Christian Adam and Eve story we find some striking similarities in both of them. Analyzing HesiodÃ¢â¬â¢s Theogony and other sources we come to the conclusion that the old Greek religion did not include a direct link as to the creation of the humans. They just co-existed with the Gods. Maybe they sprang from Gaea herself, it is not certain. Other sources for the creation of man, point to Zeus giving the task of creatingRead MorePromethean Motif3025 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesPromethean Motif HumankindÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of knowledge is represented in the Prometheus myth. The punishment of Prometheus is a reflection of the double nature of knowledge: it can be used for the benefit or the destruction of humanity. The influence and legacy of the PrometheanÃ mythÃ can be traced through history. It has been reused and recycled until it holds a distinctly familiar, yet strangely obscure grip on the imagination. There is no doubt that the Promethean tradition has become an everydayRead More The Poetry of W.B. Yeats Essay examples2304 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesthe late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, was born in Dublin in 1865. Although spending much of his childhood and youth in London, Yeats is seen as an inherently Irish literary figure. Through his early work, employing not only ancient Greek myth, but also Celtic legend, he sought to re-ignite in Ireland notions of heritage and tradition, which had diminished through the years. In Ireland, from around 1890 onwards, there was a very noticeable return to all things Irish, including a re-introductionRead MoreInterview with the Vampire Paper3909 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesInterview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles is the story of Louis (Brad Pitt), portraying a depressed man, as he tells of his life as a vampire to a radio reporter (Christian Slater) in modern time San Francisco. It is the story of the coming of age, vampire style. Louis starts out by telling how he was turned into a vampire by Lestat (Tom Cruise) and how Lestat tried to teach him how to be a vampire and the art of feeding. Louis, however, could never get used to killing humans and thus learnedRead MoreThe History of Vampires1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesvampire have, or do, that makes him/her so attractive and compelling? When did the transformation occur, from foul miscreant to suave tragic hero? Who is the vampire - really? Vampire culture seems in stark contrast with the current technological age and advances in science. Starting out in the dim and obscure recesses of Eastern European folk tales and legends, the vampire has reached center stage in modern pop culture. From foul revenant of the grave, to super hero status within 100 years of evolutionRead MoreThe As A Night Creature1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe stories held some truth, while others were pure myth. My kind cared little for the beliefs of men, as long as they served the purpose of ensuring our own survival. To anyone perceiving my presence, I would appear as a young man with hair pinned back in a long ponytail. Long hair isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the current fashion. Most men prefer the shorter styles, but I am a bit old-fashioned. IÃ¢â¬â¢d lost so much from my own time. Technology moved quickly in this age, and to a creature having seen centuries, this was unsettlingRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12166 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesimagines a boy bringing her a slice of cake but opens her eyes to find her hand in the air, grasping nothing. The terrain becomes more difficult, and at a certain point she thinks she sees a ghost, but it is only a scarecrow. Blaming the confusion on her age and the fact that her senses is gone, she moves on. She meets a black dog with a lolling tongue. She hits the dog lightly with her cane, and the effort knocks her off balance and she falls into a ditch. The dogs owner, a white hunter, happens byRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12173 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesimagines a boy bringing her a slice of cake but opens her eyes to find her hand in the air, grasping nothing. The terrain becomes more difficult, and at a certain point she thinks she sees a ghost, but it is only a scarecrow. Blaming the confusion on her age and the fact that her senses is gone, she moves on. She meets a black dog with a lolling tongue. She hits the dog lightly with her cane, and the effort knocks her off balance and she falls into a ditch. The dogs owner, a white hunter, happens by
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Questions: Task 11. During the meeting with the family member you must analyse concepts of health, disability, and illness and behaviour in relation to users of health and social care.2. Your objective also during the meeting is to reassure the family members by assessing and discussing with them how perceptions about specific needs have changed.3. Finally in you meeting you must analyse the impact of past and present legislations, social policies, society and culture on the ways that services are made available for individuals such as Mr Holland Park.Task 21. You should analyse the different care needs that will be given and is available to Mr. Holland Park.2. You should also explain current systems for supporting Mr Holland Park that are available to help their father meet his demands and specific needs.3. Lastly, in your discussion, you should evaluate the local services available to their father to support him and the family.Task 31. explain the approaches and intervention that was used to support Mr Holland Parks specific needs and those of other service user in your care home.2. Secondly, you must evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies used for Mr Holland Park and also to other service users with specific needs.3. Finally, the auditor is interested to learn about emerging developments in the area of service users with specific needs. Discuss the potential impact of emerging developments for support with specific needs.Task 4Understand strategies for coping with challenging behaviours associated with specific needs. Answers: Task 1 Analyzing the various concepts associated with the health behavior, disability and/ or illness, in context to the users of social care and/ or health care services: The various concepts associated with the health, behavior, disability and illness of persons with or without specific needs are being discussed in this section of the report: Health The state of physical, mental and social well being of a person is collaboratively termed as the health of that individual. The evaluation of heath condition takes into account the capabilities of a person in performing the various regular activities, besides considering the access of the individual to proper recreation and/ or vocation. Disability Those impaired physical, mental and/ or social conditions of a person that puts restrictions on the way he or she would led a normal life and gain access to the basic necessities of life are termed as the disabilities of a person. Illness The physical and/ or mental disabilities of an individual that forces physical impairment for a short to a very prolonged period of time are known as illness of the person. Behavioral issues The sudden and significant change in the behavior and attitude of an individual, which might be indicative of various mental health issues, are known as behavioral issues of that person (Forrest, 1996). Assessment of the change of perceptions regarding the specific needs of people with time: The particular sections of the populations who have learning disabilities and/ or issues related with the retention of memory are generally considered as people who have specific needs. Such portion of the population can be considered as a heterogeneous group in context to their specific disabilities, the degrees of their disability and various problems associated with it, their age and /or typical health conditions (Fox, 1998). Previously, the government of the United Kingdom used to run hospitals for the purpose of providing specific needs to those people who have been subjected to prolonged mental and/ or physical disabilities. However, the quality of treatment available at these hospitals started deteriorating as more and more people became aware of the services and decided to access them. At a certain point of time, the conditioned worsened so much that government decided to put an end to the system. The professional employees who used to work in these hospitals were absorbed by various specialized work communities which provided services to that section of the population with specific needs. As these work communities provided specialized care to each specific problem, the effectiveness of the treatment increased through this process and it was possible to bring a larger section of the population under such health care system (Gravestock, 1996). The success of this system has been able to change the long existing perceptions of the common mass to that section of people who have specific needs. Analysis of the impact of social policy, legislation, culture and/ or society on the various options of social and/or health care services which are available to people having specific requirements: LEGISLATION : At present, the following legislative provisions ensure that proper health and/ or social care services are available to the people with specific needs: Health Act 1999: ensure that the social and/ or health care services providers will be able to independently maintain their own budgets, will be able integrate the services provided by them and develop the arrangements of various leading commissions. Personal Health Budgets: An initiative taken by the government of the country for enhancing the quality of the social care provided to the adults. Using this policy, the patients are able to claim the charges of their respective health care providers from the government. SOCIAL POICY: Trusts have been founded for the provision of care to the adults and children and at present there are more than 10 organizations who are working in this domain. SOCIETY: The society plays very important role in the way a person When the persons with specific needs are excluded from the society because of their illness and/ or no so proper attitudes, the health conditions of these persons worsen further. The social rights of such people to receive proper and dignified treatment and compassion are ensured by the various legislative laws introduced by the government (Bradshaw, 2000). CULTURE: Unfortunately many such cultural factors still exist in our society which results in discriminatory attitude towards specific races. Adult persons are often discriminated due to the color of their skin and or their ethnicity, all the while making more and more vulnerable to various mental disorders. Even various social and/ or health care service providers discard patients due to such discriminatory attitudes. Such long existing discriminations are the primary reasons behind the physical and mental abuse that the elderly people often have to experience, leaving them in isolated situations. Figure: The Heath and Care System of UK, as published in the Department of Health Journal 2013 Task 2: Analysis of the care requirements of individuals who have specific needs: According to the information provided by his family, Mr. Park has disabilities regarding his vision and hearing, besides having challenging behavior. However, according to the primary investigations, his challenging behavior is just an indication of the suffering he experiences due to his disabilities (Mansell, 1994). The following course of treatment procedure has been devised for him: A thorough investigation of his health conditions and associated behavioral issues. A two way treatment process so as to treat his physical disabilities along with the behavioral issues that he had been projecting. Therapy sessions for his anger management issues. Constant communication with him regarding his health issues. Required medication under the supervision of medical experts. The various domain experts whose collaboration would be necessary for this process are: the social workers, occupational therapists, community nurses, physiologists and psychiatrists. Figure: The Care Provider Network Description of the systems that exist in order to support individuals having specific needs: Various systems have been introduced by the government so as to support those individuals who have specific needs, some of which are being discussed in the following section: Community Engagement: The trust care commissioners are primarily responsible for the engagement of local communities about the health and social care requirements of people with specific needs (Dean, 1996). The government has provided the responsibility of maintain a close relationship with the local authorities, voluntary organizations and/or other such agencies on the trust care commissioners, so as to develop strategies for the improvement of the well being of the local communities. The framework model strategized for Health Promotion: This particular model serves the following purposes: Promotion, protection and improvement of the health of the general mass. Making sure that the best health care strategies are practiced. Maintenance of a strategy of value for money so that the services are available at conservative pricing. Evaluation of the services which are available in the locality in order to support individuals who have specific needs: The United Kingdom has various policies and strategies that are applicable in the sectors of the social and/ or health care services of the general population. The National Healthcare Services or the NHS is the primary system that has been implemented in order to make such care systems available to those individuals who have specific needs. The National Health Care services provide various services in the under-mentioned domains: Emergency care unit General practitioner services Services related dental procedures Services related to various mental health issues Various hospital services Services related to eye care and so on and so forth. The NHS projects make various services available to the people which can be used under numerous emergency and nonemergency medical conditions. The NHS111 is one such service which the users of this system frequently exploit in order to talk directly to trained doctors and/ or other medical practitioners in case of medical emergencies that are not life threatening. The walk in centers that are run by the department of national health care services can also be used to treat minor injuries and / or illnesses. Another helpful tool available under this set of services is the symptom checker, which is an online application that can be assessed by the users of the system for evaluating their own health conditions. This particular project also makes sure that various social care services are available to the citizens of the country. The various types of social care support that are available through the NHS projects are respite breaks, equipments and / or homecare workers. In order to access these services, the users need to assess their requirements with the help of the local authority of social care services department. Last but not the least, the NHS projects provides assistance and care to the aged and neglected vulnerable adults. Task 3: Explanation of the approaches and/ or interventions which are available in order to support individuals who have specific needs: The various approaches and interventions that should be made available to Mr. Holland Park have been highlighted in this section: Approaches: The primary approach that is to be taken is to provide encouragement to the patient himself such that accepts the facilities that are being provided to him in order to improve hic conditions. Steps should be taken so as to remove the functional behavior and/ or attitude of the patient that area acting as obstacles in the way of his improvement (Carr, 2010). Evidence based clinical practices, including appropriate medication and/ or therapies, have to be incorporated in his treatment regime. Interentions: Physical interventions Holland Park should be subjected to proper exercise and therapy sessions which will be beneficial to his physical health. Educational interventions - Mr. Holland Park should be furnished with all those documents which bear useful information regarding his own health conditions and the treatments that he is being subjected to. The availability of all these information will be helpful in reducing the anxiety and stress levels that the patient is going through because of his health. Psychological interventions The behavioral issues projected by the patient should be treated with psychological interventions that would restore a sense of positivity in him. The various effects of clinical depression like that of suicidal tendencies, anxiety and/ or changes in personality can be treated with this intervention (Wallcraft, 2011). Evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention strategies that exist to support the individuals who have specific need(s): The various intervention strategies that have been prescribed for treating Mr. Holland Park sold be able to bring back the back his lost confidence on himself, which will be instrumental in improving his current conditions. The process of physical intervention will be helpful in the process of restoration of his physical health. It is a well known fact that routine exercise and proper medication are beneficial in treating issues related with anxiety and anger: thus it can be said that the physical intervention will also be helpful towards the improvement of his mental conditions. The prescribed therapies will also provide huge help to his physical and mental health conditions. It has been commented by his family members that Mr. Park is unable to carry out the various daily activities of life. The physical intervention session will help him to restore his physical strength such that he gains the confidence required to perform these activities. The psychological intervention will provide mental strength and stimulation to the patient, which in turn will help the process initiated by the physical intervention. This specific intervention would act towards reducing the stress, depression and the anger issues of the patient. The educational intervention will provide knowledge to the patient about his own health conditions, which will be helpful to him to understand the purpose of the treatment that he is undergoing. This knowledge transfer will be helpful in reducing the anxiety of the patient towards the treatment regime he is going through and will ensure his active participation in the process. Discussion on the probable impact of the developments that are emerging in order to support those individuals who have specific needs: Various innovative ideas and methods have been introduced in the sector of health and/ or social care system by the Government of the United Kingdom in the past few years, some of which have been discussed below: Personal health budgets The Government of the United Kingdom has introduced this initiative under the NHS projects. This particular project aims at helping the general mass manage their care services as it suits to them. The budget being mentioned in this initiative will be utilized to support the health and/ or social care need as identified by the user. The budget will be planned by an individual user in agreement with the NHS team of the locality. The project will be able to provide a greater control of an individual on the healthcare of services being availed, particularly in those cases where the patient is suffering from some chronic ailment and/ or some other disabilities. The Personal health care budget system has been devised to work just the way various personal budgets are maintained by the common mass in order to manage the money they need to pay to their social care providers. Social work reform board The Social Work Reform Board has been working towards the development of a framework of Professional which will be able to clearly indicate the level of knowledge, the skill set and the professional capacity of any social worker. In designing the framework, the board has proposed a set of nine capabilities which should be possessed by all social workers irrespective of the status of their working experience and/ or the domain of their expertise. The designed frame work will no doubt be instrumental in providing higher quality of health and/ or social care to those people who have specific needs. Task 4: Explanation of the various concepts associated with challenging behavior: A person mentally disable person projects various symptoms of his or her disability through uncooperative attitude, expression of temper tantrums, performing activities that might lead to self harm and feats of anger: these behavioral issues are collectively known challenging behavior (Mansell, 1994). Such conditions generally rise from various physical and mental illnesses, drug and/ or alcohol abuse, learning disabilities, disability to retain memory, injuries to the brain and/or various physical impairments. However, such challenging behavior might be considered as abusive and/ or unacceptable when they include the following sets of activities: FIGURE: Various symptoms challenging behavior Episodes of verbal abuses, like that of posing threats to others, acts of bullying and/ or making such comments that might be considered as racism. Episodes of physical abuse like that of assaulting others Activities that might lead to or are indicative of self harm. Activities and/ or behavior that might be considered as destructive to others Behavior or activities which are not legal. Activities that might pose any harm to the environment and/ or to any property. The various factors that have been recognized as being the background for challenging behavior include the following: Any physical and/ or mental disability Poor health Anxiety related to sexuality Fatigue and/ or pain, both physical and/ or mental The influence of drugs and/ or alcohol Long periods of disturbed sleep cycle Various difficulties in learning processes Certain wrong perceptions towards life and/or very great expectations from life and/ or own self. Various psychological conditions which might include fear, anxiety, temperament issues, dependency on some person, sense of frustration and/ or loss. Anxieties related to various social factors like that of ethnicity, relationship issues, and/ or cultural differences and much more. Description of how the social and/ or health care services are affected due to of challenging behavior: The people who express various symptoms of challenging behavior often posses such characteristics which are not at all apprehensible by the common mass. Most of the times to prefer to remain in isolation and maintain no contact with their family members, friends and /or neighbors. It has been also noticed that very often the activities regarded as challenging behavior are associated with various problems associated with the retention of memory. People who suffer from mental disabilities are often found to have problems while communicating with others, and such disabilities are one of the greatest factors behind their inability to carry on with their career. As a result of having no stable income, such people often require much more emotional and / or economical help from others. May of them also get addicted to alcohol and / or drug . Sc people are often more vulnerable to various types of physical and mental abuses due to their mental conditions and disabilities. Te dependence on others is yet another reason behind the abuses that they face. Taking care of such adults is often very difficult for the care givers. The management of such patients creates enormous amount of stress in the care providers, who often are found to hurl abuses towards their patients due to impatience. The care providers are often negatively affected due to the abusive behavior being committed by the patients: The most significant risk factors of challenging behavior are being discussed in the following section: Very often the caregivers express their inability to adapt to the behavior of their patients and complain of high stress levels induced by the abusive attitude of their patients. The continuous high stress level often leads to depression in case of the care givers themselves. As the caregivers themselves lose patience and they themselves face periods of depression, the support that they used to provide to their patients deteriorate in both quality and quantity. The care givers themselves might at some point of time start abusing the patients. As a result of this fiasco, the physical and/ or mental illness that the elderly patients have been suffering from increase manifold, thus increasing their characteristic physical and/ or verbal aggression. Such patients with prior history of domestic violence often experience periods of such aggression that they are excluded from the social circle. Thus it can be said that the effects of challenging behavior are such that they can actually negatively affect the care giver system itself. Analysis of the strategies that are used to deal with the challenging behaviors of individual having specific needs The various legislative and/ or social policies and methodologies and / or procedures implemented by the government and set of capabilities implemented by social work reform board make the employer of a social worker responsible for all the actions performed by the social worker. As the rules and/ or standards are nationalized, it is the responsibility of each and every social worker to abide by them. The rules and regulations formulated by the government ensure that the employees associated with social and / or health care system fully apprehend the range of their responsibilities and act in accordance. The rules also make sure that the care givers are provided with proper training and / or developmental skills for those set of works that will be assigned to them. The care givers should have respects towards the rights of the users of the health care system and under no circumstances should behave in such a manner that could be derogatory towards the self respect of the users and/ or be harmful to their physical and/ or mental health. The council associated with social care system have laid down all these instructions in the The legislative rules implemented by the government also put immense emphasis on the provision of extra help to those people who have very specific requirements. The legislative partnerships have ensured that with each passing day the services being provided to the users of health and/ or social care systems become more and more comprehensive, besides being more refined in terms of the quality services being provided. Such partnerships have immensely helped to build such principles and/or values that are shared across the service providers, agreement in various changes that previously existed in the policies, readiness of the sectors of health and/ or social care so as to in explore various innovative options to provide services, determination of the boundaries of each and every service being provided, agreement in the roles being played for purchasing services and providing them, proper identification of the resources required for services, and most importantly the policies of putti ng emphasis on the trust that the users have on the system and care givers. However, it should also be kept in mind that the implementation of all these policies and guidelines are entirely in the hands the care givers. On the other hand the people having special requirements are often very dependent on the care givers for all their daily activities. 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